The hottest information technology revolution and

2022-08-17
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The development opportunities of information technology revolution and operations research 1. Preface I feel very happy and honored to have this opportunity to discuss information science and operations research with you. I will first briefly talk about the development trend of information technology, and then talk about the four important stages and significance of the development of information technology. Finally, it discusses the relationship between the representative fields and directions in information technology and the development of operations research and their role in promoting the development of operations research

1.1 development trend of information technology at home and abroad

in the 21st century, the world will enter the information age in an all-round way, and the infrastructure of the whole society will change. Accordingly, a worldwide trend is that the traditional economy will gradually transition to a "knowledge economy", with human capital represented by intelligence, technical knowledge represented by high technology, and a new productivity system constructed with high technology as the core, It will play a decisive role in the world economy in the 21st century. The degree of national informatization has become an important symbol to measure a country's productivity and comprehensive national strength

informatization refers to the widespread adoption of modern information technology in all sectors of the national economy and all fields of social activities, so as to effectively develop and utilize information resources and greatly improve the level of decision-making, work efficiency and innovation ability

information, materials and energy together constitute the three elements on which society depends for survival. With the development of science and technology, information has penetrated into every corner of society and plays an increasingly important role. Information technology refers to a series of technologies for the acquisition, transmission, storage, processing, detection, display and application of information flow. It is a scientific and technological field with a wide range and highly integrated content

information technology has great potential benefits. Taking the United States as an example, the research achievements invested by the government in the past (such as the Internet, the first graphical web browser, and advanced microprocessors) have further consolidated the leading position of the United States in the information technology industry. At present, one third of the economic growth in the United States comes from the information technology industry, in which 7.4 million Americans are employed and receive 60% higher salaries than other private sectors. All economic departments in the United States are applying information technology to compete and win the global market. The internal e-commerce in the United States alone is planned to grow to $1.3 trillion by 2003. Information technology is also changing the way we live, work, study and communicate with each other, and affecting national security

1.2 information technology development stage

the development of information technology in "soft" mainly includes four stages, data information knowledge thought (consciousness). These four stages are closely related to the development speed of computers

data stage in the data stage, information technology is only used to process spreadsheets

information stage

in the information stage, a man-machine integrated information system assisted by modern information technology has emerged

for example, management information system, decision support system and data warehouse management information system (MIS) and decision support system (DSS) are man-machine integrated information systems that use modern information technology to assist management (MIS) or decision-making (DSS). These systems provide valuable data, information or knowledge for the management process or decision-making process, To improve the quality and efficiency of management and decision-making, improve competitiveness and viability, and create new value and benefits

knowledge stage

from the information stage to the knowledge stage, the computing speed of computers in this period has developed rapidly, and network technology, especially Internet, has begun to be valued by people. At this time, management information system, data warehouse technology and business intelligence technology have made great progress. As the Internet bandwidth becomes enough to make people believe that the information highway has become a reality, the digital earth came into being

thought stage

from knowledge to thought stage is a very important stage in the development of information technology, which is characterized by interconnection. In the ideological stage, people will mainly consider the complex problems with uncertainty, process and interaction. Because in nature, the problems we face will be complex problems. Each stage corresponds to different stages of the development of computer and information technology. Only in the fourth stage can we deal with such problems as complex dynamical systems

Second, new growth points of information technology and operations research

next, I want to talk about the emerging information technology in recent years and the close relationship between operations research and these new fields and new directions

2.1 information-based manufacturing

2.1.1 reconfigurable manufacturing mode and intelligent manufacturing system

reconfigurable manufacturing mode and intelligent manufacturing system is a new manufacturing technology and mode based on traditional information management such as MIS, DSS, CAD and cam

main research contents:

manufacturing informatics

reconfigurable manufacturing mode

design theory and method of intelligent manufacturing system

fusion theory of multi-sensor information

integration theory and method of sensing, decision-making and control. This direction involves: management operations research, industrial engineering operations research, random operations research and random service system (queuing theory)

about MIS, dss:

MIS in China, According to the construction and application of the system, it has experienced three periods: starting, development, promotion and application. Before the early 1980s, it was the initial experimental period. During this period, based on the single application of computers, some operation oriented MIS (such as [1]) were developed tentatively. From the early 1980s to the early 1990s, we entered the period of information system construction, which was mainly marked by the implementation of a number of national information systems, including the national economic information system ([2]), and the information system began to develop in our country. These huge systems are unprecedented in the world and have played a great role in the development of MIS in China. After the mid-1990s, China has entered the information age. The characteristic of this period is to put forward national informatization. Some national information systems have developed into "golden projects" (such as [3]), and vigorously build government projects. MIS centered information systems and enterprise informatization have been widely accepted, and have become indispensable infrastructure in many units. MIS has begun to play an important role in the management and development of China's economy and society. At the same time with the practice of MIS construction, it has carried out the gradual and in-depth research of MIS, which covers all aspects of MIS: system structure and model, demand analysis and system design method, system implementation technology, system development tools and generation environment, as well as the research on informatization and information resource development strategy, system environment, management process, management behavior, management structure of organizations or enterprises, etc. With the development of computer technology, China's MIS has developed from the early mainframe structure to distributed MIS and Intranet/Web-based MIS. These new structures have been widely used in new MIS systems. The analysis and design method and description language of information system are the key topics of MIS. In the first stage of the development of MIS, the research on this aspect has begun. For example, [4] research on the design method for underlying data processing, which is suitable for the MIS system at that time. By the mid-1980s, China put forward a series of tasks for the construction of large-scale information systems, which required a new analysis and design method of information systems for middle and upper management. [5] is a work in this field. It developed a complete design method of large-scale complex information systems, which has been affirmed at home and abroad and has been popularized in China. With the development of information technology, system analysis and design methods are developing towards objectification, visualization, intelligence, automation and formalization. [6] The method in can be used in both software system and MIS system. China has done a lot of research on the implementation technology of MIS system, such as data processing, model technology, knowledge processing and intelligent technology, network technology, man-machine interface, system integration and so on (such as []), and there are a lot of achievements, which provide a reliable technical foundation for the development and implementation of MIS system. An important field of system technology is the research and development of system development tools, development environment and MIS application generator. After nearly two decades of efforts, China has not only completed a number of technical research and prototype system development, but also has a number of practical commercialized products (such as [9,12]). Organizational structure and enterprise management process, management behavior, management structure, etc. are the scientific basis of MIS management, and their research has been paid attention to (such as [14,15]). The research shows that whether China's MIS can adapt to the characteristics of China's management work has a significant and even decisive impact on the success of MIS

the research on DSS in China began in the early 1980s, and went through two stages: the initial research and development in the 1980s and the in-depth research on the promotion and application in the 1990s. The research scope ranges from the cognitive process of decision-making to system operation, involving: the development and use of DSS application system, DSS implementation technology, DSS development tools and development environment, decision support function, decision model, decision algorithm, cognitive process of decision-making and decision-making behavior, etc. In terms of application results, research content and research strength, DSS has made significant development in China. The application of DSS is the biggest driving force to promote its development. Among the early practical examples of DSS, there is the decision support system for the overall development of Shanxi Province developed in cooperation with foreign countries [16], which shows that China has a relatively high starting point in the research and development of DSS. Recent examples are [17], which won the first prize of the International Operations Research Conference (IFORS 96). According to incomplete statistics, dozens of DSS practical systems have been developed. China has made great progress in the implementation technology of DSS, and has mastered a complete set of system implementation technology, including model management, data management, knowledge processing and intelligent technology, system structure and development method, information representation and human-computer interaction technology. Model is the core of DSS, and the research center of model management is model base management system and computer-aided modeling (such as [18]). In addition to the use of traditional technologies such as database and statistical analysis, data processing has begun to study multidimensional data analysis and data warehouse, data mining, knowledge mining, online analysis (OLAP) technology (such as [19]). Intelligence is one of the essential characteristics of the next generation of DSS, and has become the hotspot of DSS research in China. Knowledge processing has been applied to many links of decision-making analysis process and various components of DSS system, and has achieved good results. This aspect is more intensively reflected in [20]. As a man-machine system, DSS has attracted much attention for its information representation and human-machine interaction technology [21]. The research on the system structure and development method of DSS runs through the system development of DSS, and also carries out research on the general structure and methodology (such as [22]). DSS development tools, development environments and generators are important topics in DSS research. China has successfully developed a number of DSS development environments and generators, and used them to establish DSS application systems (such as [23]). In terms of support functions, it has gone from supporting single person decision-making to supporting multi person or team decision-making (GDSS, [24]), from providing support for data processing to providing intelligent knowledge processing support (IDSS, [25]), from non cooperative decision support to cooperative support (CSCW, such as [26]), and recently began the research on active DSS (actdss, [27])

idss, GDSS, CSCW, and actdss reflect the breadth of DSS research in China.

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