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Information Industry: learn from the development experience of the United States

how does the investment in information technology and the business model of IT enterprises relate to the economy of the United States; What problems will the development of information technology bring. The track of information development in developed countries has certain reference significance for developing countries

correlation between technology investment and economic growth

as early as the late 1980s, American scholar Chasman investigated 292 enterprises, and found a strange phenomenon. There was no obvious correlation between the IT investment and the return on investment (ROI) of these enterprises. In October 2001, McKinsey consulting published the report on the growth of American production efficiency 1995-2000, which expanded this conclusion to 53 industries, accounting for about 70% of the total economy, It is pointed out that "there is only a vague relationship between it and productivity." No wonder someone commented on the failure of American companies in IT strategy and said, "in the history of human struggle, we have not paid so much and achieved so little."

the paper of Nicholas g. Carr was published in the may2003 issue of Harvard Business Review in the United States. As soon as this article was published, it triggered a heated debate in the theoretical circle. Carl believes that CEOs often talk about the strategic value of information technology and always talk about how to use it to gain competitive advantage. However, it is scarcity, not universality, that actually determines whether corporate resources really have strategic value. Only when you have no one can you bring competitive advantage. For enterprises, it has become a regular investment, and the opportunity to gain advantages based on it is getting smaller and smaller. "From the perspective of strategic importance, it will fade out of the stage and become less important.". Therefore, Carl suggested that the IT management of enterprises should reduce investment, take defensive measures, and focus on reducing risks rather than increasing opportunities

in fact, economists, management scientists and information system researchers have tried to solve this paradox for more than 20 years. Among them, the researchers are represented by Brian Johansen, Qiao Gensheng and others, and the research institutions are represented by the organization for economic cooperation and development, the Economic Advisory Council and other institutions

according to the analysis of the United States by OLINA and sicher in 2000, all the multifactor productivity growth can be traced back to the information and communication technology production industry (such as computers, semiconductors, communication equipment). In the same period, Qiao Gensheng and Stilo made a similar explanation for the phenomenon of economic growth in the United States

Jordan attributed the accelerated growth of the whole economy to the progress of multifactor productivity in the manufacturing of computers and related semiconductors, although this result mainly relied on special methods to correct its contribution to productivity. Obviously, on the one hand, technological progress has promoted the growth of multifactor production efficiency in the information and communication technology industry, and then promoted the extensive growth of multifactor production efficiency in the whole economy. On the other hand, technological progress has also led to a reduction in the price of communication equipment, gradually opening the oil supply valve to enable capital to invest more in other industries. Jordan believes that the "price reduction effect" of ICT does not depend on the existence of ICT production industry, while the "diffusion effect" of ICT has this dependence. To some extent, the progress of ICT industry is conducive to the development of multifactor production efficiency of the whole economy

a comparative study conducted by Van Bart Aker on 10 OECD countries found that the United States has more investment in information and communication technology than other countries, and has maintained a leading position in technology. This advantage of the information and communication technology industry at least partially explains the reasons for the rapid economic growth of the United States in the 1990s

Alexandra clarkchar and Paul Schrier's research on nine countries in 2001 showed that in the past 20 years, information and communication technology has contributed 0.2 to 0.5 percentage points to the economic growth of all countries every year. In particular, in the second half of the 1990s, the contribution rate of ICT increased to 0.3 to 0.9 percentage points per year. Obviously, the ICT industry has the greatest impact on the economic development of the United States. Of course, the United States is not the only country that benefits from the capital investment in ICT. The other eight countries studied have achieved economic growth to varying degrees. Although the contribution rate of ICT to economic growth in Germany, Italy, France and Japan is relatively low

in the past two years, John Hagel III has published a monograph on how to strategically obtain immediate profits and maintain future growth through network services. Howard Smith and Peter finger believe that information technology should focus on the future and make great achievements, especially through process reengineering to gain competitive advantage

the relationship between information outsourcing and economic growth

on February 17, 2004, Professor George Mankiw, chief economist of the White House and chairman of the Economic Advisory Committee, pointed out that the existing world trade system is facing new challenges, and an open world trade system will be conducive to improving the living standards of the United States and other countries. Today, some observers have raised questions about global free trade, partly because of the weak labor market in the United States and the outsourcing of a large number of jobs to other countries. In fact, at the press conference on February 9, 2004, George Mankiw once pointed out that outsourcing service is a new method of international trade. In the long run (the registration fee includes handouts, USB flash drives, meals, refreshments, etc.), it is conducive to improving the labor productivity of the United States. Originally an ordinary release, it triggered a big debate in American politics and economics, which also provided a new topic for this year's American election

strictly speaking, we believe that outsourcing service refers to the process of transferring some periodic and repeated activities or functions within an enterprise to external service providers by contract. In the whole process of transferring internal activities of enterprises, production factors and decision-making power will also be transferred. In a broader sense, outsourcing services have long existed in agriculture, construction, manufacturing, government departments and other fields. Even in the information technology service industry, its outsourcing history can be traced back to the "World War II" period. At that time, many companies that provided information technology services to the U.S. federal government have now turned into international giant enterprises in a considerable number

since the second half of 2003, the fragile job market in the United States has become the focus of attention in all walks of life because major companies such as Intel and IBM have transferred some of their businesses overseas. However, the theoretical, industrial and political circles have different concerns about this issue. Theorists are concerned about whether outsourcing services have led to the failure of traditional theories? Does it cause new theoretical changes? What the industry pays attention to is the trend of outsourcing services and its impact on business operations. Should their own enterprises also become outsourcing demanders or providers? Does outsourcing lead to an increase in the number of laid-off workers? The political circles are concerned about the overall impact of outsourcing on national interests, whether it has a serious impact on the development of national core industries and even national security? What people care about is whether their jobs will disappear with outsourcing

Robert Ritchie, who once served as the Labor Secretary of the Clinton administration, believes that outsourcing has not reduced the overall number of labor in the United States. If other countries can make some products cheaper, we should outsource them and concentrate on doing things we can do better

The labor organization advocates that the government should legislate to restrict the overseas outsourcing development of American enterprises. In addition, John Kerry, the Democratic candidate for the presidential election this year, used the imprecise wording in Mankiw's speech to criticize the Bush Administration for encouraging American industrial outsourcing, and suggested that American companies must make a statement three months in advance before outsourcing overseas

outsourcing is not a "new thing", and we should rationally evaluate the contribution of outsourcing to technological progress and economic development. First of all, objectively speaking, global outsourcing played an important role in the 1990s, the climax of information technology, accelerating technology diffusion and technology sharing. It can be said that if there is no outsourcing, it may still be an expensive "big brick", which is still a luxury for some dignitaries, rather than the daily necessities of today's Pratt & Whitney public. The global information technology outsourcing service was only $9billion in 1990, but it reached $28billion in 1994, with an average annual growth rate of more than 25%. Moreover, this technology trend of transnational outsourcing has a trend of further expansion. According to the prediction, the company's expenditure on information technology outsourcing services has reached $300billion in 2001 and is expected to increase to $700billion by 2008. Some researchers even predict that the information technology outsourcing service market will reach US $1 trillion by 2010

secondly, outsourcing is conducive to the improvement of labor productivity in the United States. Reviewing the new economic history of the United States, one of the important reasons is that outsourcing has reduced the cost of manufacturing in the United States and promoted the improvement of productivity. From 1995 to 2002, outsourcing supported the growth of labor productivity in the United States from 2.5% to 2.8%. This has increased national output by at least $230billion

thirdly, there is a certain connection between outsourcing and American unemployment on the surface, but there is no inevitable causal relationship. For example, although outsourcing in the United States developed rapidly in the 1990s, the unemployment rate in the United States fell to less than 4% in the 1990s. In contrast, the sluggish employment market in the United States is mainly due to the sluggish domestic economy. From 1999 to 2003, the U.S. economy fell from peak to trough, and 1.3 million non-agricultural jobs disappeared. At the same time, 2.8 million jobs have been lost in the manufacturing industry, and 800000 management positions cannot be outsourced to other countries. The US economy has been in recession since the middle of 2000. In the past three years, a series of challenges have come one after another: the bursting of the foam in stocks, the September 11 tragedy, and the scandals on Wall Street. These events have seriously affected domestic investment in the United States

therefore, when people review the sweetness of rapid economic development, they should realize that labor productivity plays a dual role in the employment market. The improvement of labor efficiency, on the one hand, means that many new employment fields may be extended. On the other hand, it is obvious that the demand for labor by capital is declining. The improvement of productivity has its destructive side, and it is inevitable to give up some redundant staff. As Marx said, "machines will exclude workers"

problems brought about by the development of information technology

at the end of 2003, a famous domestic IT magazine invited experts to select the "top 10 information technologies that will affect the next two to three years". Unfortunately, radio frequency identification (RFID) technology was not selected. However, the analysis report of Forrester Institute, a world-famous information technology research institution, believes that RFID will be a major technological development trend this year. At the same time, various industry trends also prove that RFID will become a focus of future development

RFID system is mainly composed of reader, antenna, tag, related hardware and software. Within the magnetic field range, the tag receives the RF signal sent by the reader, actively sends the signal of a certain frequency or passively sends the product information stored in the chip. After the reader reads and decodes the information, it is sent to the central information system for relevant data processing.

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